In the MIL-UAS-SPECIFIC category, an assessment of the Air and Ground Risks is envisaged, similarly to the SPECIFIC category in the civil sector. It was reported by some EDA pMS that the civilian Risk Assessment methodology is not adapted to the Military specificities and needs. Some EDA pMS have already defined a national Risk Assessment methodology but there is no harmonized European military methodology. This causes difficulties to the industry offering products or services to both the civil and the military market, leading to increased costs for military procurement. 

Furthermore, this lack of harmonization also creates difficulties to any EDA pMS for operating or training in another EDA pMS, as the requesting nation must know and apply several different methodologies from all the potential host nations. It would at least require additional time and effort. 



This activity defined the Air and Ground Risk models to be used in the proposed Risk Assessment methodology considering the existing methods, their current developments, and the expectations of the EDA pMS gathered in the previous step. Moreover, it also developed a static prototype of an online tool that implements the Risk Assessment methodology. 


This activity integrated the MIL-UAS-SPECIFIC Risk Assessment methodology, called MUSRA, by providing additional guidance and examples about how to use it. It also included a preliminary validation of the risk assessment process carried out by applying MUSRA to one civilian and one military uses case. Finally, it has been outlined a plan to update the methodology in the coming years considering the feedback received from military users and the developments of its parent methodologies and reference documents, such as the latest standards issued by Standard Development Organizations. 

Main outcomes 

MUSRA has been developed based on the information collected from EDA pMS. Two existing Risk Assessment methodologies have been considered in the development of MUSRA since they are already used by several EDA pMS:

  • as the baseline for the Ground Risk Model, the 'Proposed Risk Assessment Tool - pRAT" developed in 2014-2016 by EDA pMS; and
  • as the baseline for the Air Risk Model, the "Specific Operations Risk Assessment - SORA" - published by EASA as AMC for the Specific category). 

The two methodologies above have been integrated and adapted to consider military specificities and needs, including the feedback gathered during workshops with experts from EDA pMS.

The result is a methodology that aims at harmonizing the risk assessment processes without imposing additional constraints with respect to the parent methodologies and on the other side ensuring that all aspects are properly considered. 


The methodology MUSRA developed by this project is a public document shared for academic purposes. It will help UAS stakeholders developing Risk assessment methodologies which are more and more quantitative. It will support the SPECIFIC/MIL-UAS-SPECIFIC operations of UAS on the civilian/military sides. Deliverables are downloadable here: D1, D2, D3 and final report D4

In 2023-2024, the EDA is sponsoring the development of an online tool which will be reserved for the EDA MS, in order to facilitate the application of the MUSRA methodology by the UAS operating units and their operational approval by the Military Aviation/Airworthiness Authorities.